on these links to go to specific studies:
Need for Adequate Water When Exercising
Alkaline Water with Low ORP to Reduce Radical Damage
Effect of Alkaline Water on Free Radicals
Use of Acid Water to Reduce Food Borne Pathogens
Acid Water and Food Sanitation
Use of Acid Water to Clean Plastic Cutting Boards
Acid Water and Hospital Infections
Use of Acid Water on Burns
Acid Water for Burns
Acid Water to Extend Flower Life
Alkaline Water and Reducing Cholesterol
Alkaline Water Use in Illness Recovery
Alkaline Water Used to Neutralize Toxins
Alkaline Water and Eczema
Alkaline Water for Allergy Treatment
Alkaline Water and Stomach Disease
Alkaline Water for Diabetes
Alkaline Water and Obesity
Health Benefits of Alkaline Water
Results from Drinking Alkaline Water
Alkaline Water and Stomach Complaints
Alkaline Water and Intestinal Fermentation
Alkaline Water for Bone Health
Adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, promotes the
health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals
participating in regular physical activity.
College of Sports Medicine position stand.
on need for adequate water when exercising.
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr,
the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate
fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the
health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals
participating in regular physical activity. This position statement is
based on a comprehensive review and interpretation of scientific
literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement on exercise
performance and the risk of thermal injury associated with dehydration and
Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicine makes
the following general recommendations on the amount and composition of
fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during, and after
exercise or athletic competition:
1) It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced
diet and drink adequate fluids during the 24-hr period before an event,
especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, to
promote proper hydration before exercise or competition.
2) It is recommended that individuals drink about 500 ml (about 17 ounces)
of fluid about 2 hours before exercise to promote adequate hydration and
allow time for excretion of excess ingested water.
3) During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular
intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace
all the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), or consume
the maximal amount that can be tolerated.
4) It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambient
temperature (between 15 degrees and 22 degrees C or 59 degrees and 72
degrees F) and flavored to enhance palatability and promote fluid
replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served in containers
that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease and with minimal
interruption of exercise.
5) Addition of proper amounts of carbohydrates and/or electrolytes to a
fluid replacement solution is recommended for exercise events of duration
greater than 1 hour since it does not significantly impair water delivery
to the body and may enhance performance. During exercise lasting less than
1 hour, there is little evidence of physiological or physical performance
differences between consuming a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and plain
6) During intense exercise lasting longer than 1 hr, it is recommended
that carbohydrates be ingested at a rate of 30-60 g.h(-1) to maintain
oxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate of carbohydrate
intake can be achieved without compromising fluid delivery by drinking
600-1200 ml.hr(-1) of solutions containing 4%-8% carbohydrates (g.100
ml(-1)). The carbohydrates can be sugars (glucose or sucrose) or starch
7) Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of water) in the rehydration
solution ingested during exercise lasting longer than 1 hr is recommended
since it may be advantageous in enhancing palatability, promoting fluid
retention, and possibly preventing hyponatremia in certain individuals who
drink excessive quantities of fluid. There is little physiological basis
for the presence of sodium in an oral rehydration solution for enhancing
intestinal water absorption as long as sodium is sufficiently available
from the previous meal.
Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects
DNA from oxidative damage.
Alkaline water with low ORP to reduce Radical Damage
Biophys Res Commun.
1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.
Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H,
Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.
of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources
Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. email@example.com
oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive
oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a
variety of diseases as well as aging.
The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be 'active hydrogen'.
'Active hydrogen' can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during
electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved
oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and
extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly
electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and
tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine
oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The
superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4
degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization,
repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing,
boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by
opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten
trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled
with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP
values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These
results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to
the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen
(active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD
system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD.
Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly
Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen
species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a
dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only
O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.
9169001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion
radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis.
of Alkaline Water on Free Radicals
K, Sun D, Lawrence R, Kamitani Y, Fernandes G.
Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan.
reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the
antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid
(AsA) in a previous paper.
We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM
NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned
that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of
the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw)
was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration
method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS)
mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled
phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water
had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by
reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems.
The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be
explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.
14871602 [PubMed - in process]
Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with various antimicrobial
interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry.
Acid Water to reduce Foodborne Pathogens
KA, Sharma RR, Demirci A, Cutter CN.
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University
Park 16802, USA.
Foodborne pathogens in cell suspensions or attached to surfaces can be
reduced by electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water; however, the use of EO water
against pathogens associated with poultry has not been explored.
In this study, acidic EO water [EO-A; pH 2.6, chlorine (CL) 20 to 50 ppm,
and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 1,150 mV], basic EO water (EO-B;
pH 11.6, ORP of -795 mV), CL, ozonated water (OZ), acetic acid (AA), or
trisodium phosphate (TSP) was applied to broiler carcasses inoculated with
Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and submerged (4 C, 45 min), spray-washed (85
psi, 25 C, 15 s), or subjected to multiple interventions (EO-B spray,
immersed in EO-A; AA or TSP spray, immersed in CL). Remaining bacterial
populations were determined and compared at Day 0 and 7 of aerobic,
refrigerated storage. At Day 0, submersion in TSP and AA reduced ST 1.41
log10, whereas EO-A water reduced ST approximately 0.86 log10. After 7 d
of storage, EO-A water, OZ, TSP, and AA reduced ST, with detection only
after selective enrichment. Spray-washing treatments with any of the
compounds did not reduce ST at Day 0. After 7 d of storage, TSP, AA, and
EO-A water reduced ST 2.17, 2.31, and 1.06 log10, respectively. ST was
reduced 2.11 log10 immediately following the multiple interventions, 3.81
log10 after 7 d of storage. Although effective against ST, TSP and AA are
costly and adversely affect the environment.
This study demonstrates that EO water can reduce ST on poultry surfaces
following extended refrigerated storage.
PMID: 12412930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and
sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water.
Water and Food Sanitation
2003 Sep 15;86(3):231-7.
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been
utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and
Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride
solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and
sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant
Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation-reduction
potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage
reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8,
16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds
at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the
treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during
treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by
soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period
equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1%
peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 5 microg/ml of
nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between
38.2% and 97.1% (0.22-1.56 log(10) CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated
seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05-2.72
An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E.
coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from
92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO
water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts.
12915034 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Inactivation of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes on
plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.
Acid Water to clean Plastic Cutting Boards
Venkitanarayanan KS, Ezeike GO, Hung YC, Doyle MP.
Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269,
milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 (approximately 10(10) CFU) was inoculated on a 100-cm2 area marked
on unscarred cutting boards.
Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood
for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile
deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20 min; 45
degrees C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 degrees C for 5 min. After each
temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the pathogen on
cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated
cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water reduced E. coli O157:H7
populations by > or = 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2 on cutting boards. However,
immersion of cutting boards in deionized water decreased the pathogen
count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Treatment of cutting boards
inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at
selected temperature-time combinations (23 degrees C for 20 min, 35
degrees C for 10 min, and 45 degrees C for 10 min) substantially reduced
the populations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the counts recovered
from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli O157:H7 and L.
monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after
soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water
used for soaking the cutting boards.
This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in
electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for
inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards.
10456736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains
involved in hospital infections.
Water and Hospital Infections
NV, Vorobjeva LI, Khodjaev EY.
Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Biology Faculty, Moscow State
University, Lenin Hills 1/12, Moscow 119992, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
study is designed to investigate bactericidal actions of electrolyzed
oxidizing water on hospital infections.
Ten of the most common opportunistic pathogens are used for this study.
Cultures are inoculated in 4.5 mL of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water or
4.5 mL of sterile deionized water (control), and incubated for 0, 0.5, and
5 min at room temperature. At the exposure time of 30 s the EO water
completely inactivates all of the bacterial strains, with the exception of
vegetative cells and spores of bacilli which need 5 min to be killed. The
results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful
disinfectant for hospital infections, but its clinical application has
still to be evaluated.
PMID: 15153153 [PubMed - in process]
Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water and hydrocolloid occlusive
dressings on excised burn-wounds in rats.
Acid Water on Burns
Xin H, Zheng YJ, Hajime N, Han ZG.
Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Jilin
130031, China. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and
hydrocolloid occlusive dressings in the acceleration of epithelialization
in excised burn-wounds in rats.
METHODS: Each of the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) was subjected
to a third-degree burn that covered approximately 10% of the total body
surface area. Rats were assigned into four groups: Group I (no
irrigation), Group II (irrigation with physiologic saline), Group III
(irrigation with EOW) and Group IV (hydrocolloid occlusive dressing after
EOW irrigation). Wounds were observed macroscopically until complete
epithelialization was present, then the epithelialized wounds were
examined microscopically. RESULTS: Healing of the burn wounds was the
fastest in Group IV treated with hydrocolloid occlusive dressing together
with EOW. Although extensive regenerative epidermis was seen in each
Group, the proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages associated with
dense collagen deposition were more extensive in Group II, III and IV than
in Group I. These findings were particularly evident in Group III and IV.
CONCLUSIONS: Wound Healing may be accelerated by applying a
hydrocolloid occlusive dressing on burn surfaces after they are cleaned
with electrolyzed oxidating water.
indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing.
Water for Burns
Kono M, Kitahara M, Ohmura A, Sumita O, Hashimoto T, Hori K, Ning-Juan C,
Woodson P, Kubota S, Murakami A, Takamoto S.
Department of Anesthesiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital,
Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Electrolyzed water accelerated the healing of full-thickness cutaneous
wounds in rats, but only anode chamber water (acid pH or neutralized) was
effective. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), also produced by electrolysis, was
ineffective, suggesting that these types of electrolyzed water enhance
wound healing by a mechanism unrelated to the well-known antibacterial
action of HOCl. One possibility is that reactive oxygen species, shown to
be electron spin resonance spectra present in anode chamber water, might
trigger early wound healing through fibroblast migration and
11121980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed
Water used to extend Flower Life
Department of Research and Development, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.,
2-1 Tsuishikari, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 067-0033, Japan. email@example.com
Electrolyzed anode water (EAW) markedly extended the vase life of cut
Therefore, a flower-senescence hormone involving ethylene decomposition by
EAW with potassium chloride as an electrolyte was investigated. Ethylene
was added externally to EAW, and the reaction between ethylen and the
available chlorine in EAW was examined. EAW had a low pH value (2.5), a
high concentration of dissolved oxygen, and extremely high redox potential
(19.2 mg/l and 1323 mV, respectively) when available chlorine was at a
concentration of about 620 microns. The addition of ethylene to EAW led to
ethylene decomposition, and an equimolar amount of ethylene chlorohydrine
with available chlorine was produced. The ethylene chlorohydrine
production was greatly affected by the pH value (pH 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 were
tested), and was faster in an acidic solution. Ethylene chlorohydrine was
not produced after ethylene had been added to EAW at pH 2.6 when available
chlorine was absent, but was produced after potassium hypochlorite had
been added to such EAW. The effect of the pH value of EAW on the vase life
of cut carnations was compatible with the decomposition rate of ethylene
in EAW of the same pH value.
These results suggest that the effect of Electrolyzed Anode Water on the
vase life of cut carnations was due to the decomposition of ethylene to
ethylene chlorohydrine by chlorine from chlorine compounds.
12784619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
of Ionized water in hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria
Water and Reducing Cholestrol
Kuninaka Hironage, Head of Kuninaka Hospital
many fats in the diets, which lead to the deposition of cholesterol on the
blood vessels, which in turn constrict the blood flow, cause most
illnesses such as high blood pressure.
In accordance with the theory of Professor Gato of Kyushu University on
Vitamin K (because vitamin K enables the blood calcium to increase ),
or the consumption of more antioxidant water, the effectiveness of the
increase in the calcium in high blood pressure is most significant.
With the consumption of alkaline antioxidant water for a period of 2 to
3 months, I have observed the blood pressure slowly drop, due to the
water's solvent ability, which dissolves the cholesterol in the blood
Alkaline Water Use in Illness Recovery
Watanabe Ifao, Watanabe Hospital
alkaline antioxidant water improves body constituents and ensures
effective healing to many illnesses. The uses of antioxidant water in
gynecological patients have proved to be very effective. The main reason
for its effectiveness is that this water can neutralize toxins.
given antioxidant water to pre-eclamptic toxemia cases, the results are
most significant. During my long years of servicing the pre-eclamptic
toxemia cases, I found that the women with pre-eclamptic toxemia who
consumed antioxidant water tend to deliver healthier babies with
stronger muscles. A survey report carried out on babies in this group
showed intelligence above average."
Water used to Neutralize Toxins
Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine
opinion, the wonder of antioxidant water is the ability neutralizes
toxins, but it is not a medicine. The difference is that the medicine
can only apply to each and individual case, whereas the antioxidant water
can be consumed generally and its neutralizing power is something
which is very much unexpected. Now, in brief, let me introduce to you a
heart disease case and how it was cured.
patient was a 35 years old male suffering from vascular heart disease. For
5 years, his sickness deteriorated. He was in the Setagays Government
Hospital for treatment.
During those 5 years, he had been in and out of the hospital 5 to 6 times.
He had undergone high tech examinations such as angiogram by injecting
VINYL via the vein into the heart. He consulted and sought treatment from
many good doctors where later he underwent a major surgical operation.
Upon his discharge from the hospital, he quit his job to convalesce.
However, each time when his illness relapsed, the attack seemed to be even
year, in August, his relatives were in despair and expected he would not
live much longer. It so happened at that time that the victim's relative
came across an antioxidant alkaline water processor... His illness
responded well and he is now on the road to recovery."
In the United States, cardiovascular diseases account for more than
one-half of the approximate 2 million deaths occurring each year. It is
estimated that optimal conditioning of drinking water could reduce this
cardiovascular disease mortality rate by as much as 15 percent.
From: Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee of the National Academy
of Sciences, 1977
Water and Eczema
Tamura Tatsuji, Keifuku Rehabilitation Center
is used to describe several varieties of skin conditions, which have a
number of common features.
The exact cause or causes of eczema are not fully understood. In many
cases, eczema can be attributed to external irritants.
introduce a patient who recovered from skin disease after consuming the
antioxidant water. This patient suffered 10 years of eczema and could not
be cured effectively even under specialist treatment. This patient, who is
70 years of age, is the president of a vehicle spare parts company. After
the war, his lower limbs suffered acute eczema, which later became
chronic. He was repeatedly treated in a specialist skin hospital.
limb responded well to treatment, but not so on the right limb. He
suffered severe itchiness, which, when scratched led to bleeding. During
the last 10 years, he was seen and treated by many doctors. When I first
examined him, his lower limb around the joints was covered with vesicles.
Weeping occurred owing to serum exuding from the vesicles.
I advised him to try consuming antioxidant water. He bought a unit and
consumed the antioxidant water religiously and used the acidic water to
bathe the affected areas. After 2 weeks of treatment the vesicles dried
up. The eczema completely cleared without any relapse after 1½ month."
Water for Allergy Treatment
Kuninaka Hironaga, Head of Kuninaka Hospital
Yamada, the head of the Police Research Institute, suffered from severe
allergy. He was treated repeatedly by a skin specialist, but with no
success. Then he started consuming antioxidant water. The allergy
responded very well and was soon completely cured. No relapse had
occurred, although he had taken all kinds of food. He was most grateful
and excited about this treatment.
As for myself, I had also suffered severe allergy. From the time I began
to consume antioxidant water, the allergy has not returned. Since then, I
started research on the effectiveness of antioxidant water.
I discovered that most allergies are due to acidification of body
condition and is also related to consuming too much meat and sugar. In
every allergy case, the patient's antioxidant minerals are excessively low
which in turn lower the body resistance significantly. The body becomes
overly sensitive and develops allergy easily. To stabilize the
sensitivity, calcium solution in injected into the vein. Therefore, it is
clear that antioxidant water, with ionic calcium, can help alleviate
The ionic calcium not only enhances the heart, urination, and
neutralization of toxins but controls acidity. It also enhances the
digestive system and liver function. This will promote natural healing
power and hence increase its resistance to allergy. In some special cases
of illness, which do not respond to drugs, they are found to respond well
to antioxidant water."
Water and Stomach Disease
Kogure Keizou, Kogure Clinic of Juntendo Hospital
stomach is readily upset both by diseases affecting the stomach and by
other general illnesses. In addition, any nervous tension or anxiety
frequently causes gastric upset or vague symptoms.
The important role of antioxidant water in our stomach is to neutralize
the secretion and strengthen it's functions. Usually, after consuming the
antioxidant water for 1 to 3 minutes, the gastric juice increase to 1½
times. For those suffering from hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria ( low in
gastric juice ) the presence of antioxidant water will stimulate the
stomach cells to secrete more gastric juice. This in turn enhances
digestion and absorption of minerals.
However, on the other hand, those with hyperchlorhydria ( high in gastric
juice ), the antioxidant water neutralizes the excessive gastric juice.
Hence, it does not create any adverse reaction.
According to the medical lecturer from Maeba University, the pH of the
gastric secretion will still remain normal when antioxidant water is
consumed. This proves that the ability of the antioxidant water is able to
neutralize as well as to stimulate the secretion."
Water for Diabetes
Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine
was serving in the Fire Insurance Association, I used to examine many
diabetic patients. Besides treating them with drugs, I provided them with
antioxidant water. After drinking antioxidant water for one month, 15
diabetic patients were selected and sent to Tokyo University for further
test and observations.
Initially, the more serious patients were a bit apprehensive about the
treatment. When the antioxidant water was consumed for some time, the
sugar in the blood and urine ranged from a ratio of 300 mg/l to 2 mg / dc.
There was a time where the patients had undergone 5 to 6 blood tests a day
and detected to be within normal range. Results also showed that even 1 ½
hour after meals, the blood sugar and urine ratio was 100 mg/dc: 0 mg/dc .
The sugar in the urine had completely disappeared.
More Americans than ever before are suffering from diabetes, with the
number of new cases averaging almost 800,000 each year. The disease has
steadily increased in the United States since 1980, and in 1998, 16
million Americans were diagnosed with diabetes (10.3 million diagnosed;
5.4 million undiagnosed). Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death
in the United States, and more than 193,000 died from the disease and its
related complication in 1996.
greatest increase, 76 percent, occurred in people age 30 to 30.
From: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 13, 2000 Fact
of Ionized water in treating Acidosis
Water and Obesity
Hatori Tasutaroo, Head of Akajiuiji Blood Centre, Yokohama Hospital,
to a higher standard of living, our eating habits have changed. We consume
too much proteins, fats and sugar. The excess fats and carbohydrates are
in the body as fats. In the present lifestyles, Americans are more
extravagant on food compared to the Japanese. Due to this excessive intake
obesity is a significant problem. Normally, one out of five males and one
out of four females is obese.
The degree of "burn-out" in food intake largely depends on the amount on
intake of vitamins and minerals. When excessive intake of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats occurs, the requirement for vitamins and minerals
increases. However, there is not much research carried out pertaining to
the importance of vitamins and minerals.
Nowadays, many people suffer from acidification that leads to diabetes,
heart diseases, cancer, liver and kidney diseases. If our food intake can
be completely burned off, then there is no deposition of fats. Obviously,
there will be no acidification problem and hence there should not be any
sign of obesity.
The antioxidant water contains an abundance of ionic calcium. This ionic
calcium (and other alkalizing minerals) help in the "burn-off" process. By
drinking antioxidant water, it provides sufficient minerals for our body.
Hence, antioxidant water is a savior for those suffering from obesity
and many adult diseases, providing assistance in enhancing good
REDUCED WATER FOR PREVENTION OF DISEASES
Benefits of Alkaline Water
Graduate school of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University,
Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
long been established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause many types
of damage to biomolecules and cellular structures, that, in turn result in
the development of a variety of pathologic states such as diabetes, cancer
Reduced water is defined as anti-oxidative water produced by reduction of
water. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has been demonstrated to be
hydrogen-rich water and can scavenge ROS in vitro (Shirahata et al.,
1997). The reduction of proton in water to active hydrogen (atomic
hydrogen, hydrogen radical) that can scavenge ROS is very easily caused by
a weak current, compared to oxidation of hydroxyl ion to oxygen molecule.
Activation of water by magnetic field, collision, minerals etc. will also
produce reduced water containing active hydrogen and/or hydrogen molecule.
Several natural waters such as Hita Tenryosui water drawn from deep
underground in Hita city in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tlacote
water in Mexico are known to alleviate various diseases. We have developed
a sensitive method by which we can detect active hydrogen existing in
reduced water, and have demonstrated that not only ERW but also natural
reduced waters described above contain active hydrogen and scavenge ROS in
cultured cells. ROS is known to cause reduction of glucose uptake by
inhibiting the insulin-signaling pathway in cultured cells. Reduced water
scavenged intracellular ROS and stimulated glucose uptake in the presence
or absence of insulin in both rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and mouse
3T3/L1 adipocytes. This insulin-like activity of reduced water was
inhibited by wortmannin that is specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, a key
molecule in insulin signaling pathways. Reduced water protected
insulin-responsive cells from sugar toxicity and improved the damaged
sugar tolerance of type 2 diabetes model mice, suggesting that reduced
water may improve insulin-independent diabetes mellitus.
Cancer cells are generally exposed to high oxidative stress. Reduced water
cause impaired tumor phenotypes of human cancer cells, such as reduced
growth rate, morphological changes, reduced colony formation ability in
soft agar, passage number-dependent telomere shortening, reduced binding
abilities of telomere binding proteins and suppressed metastasis.
Reduced water suppressed the growth of cancer cells transplanted into
mice, demonstrating their anti-cancer effects in vivo. Reduced water is
applicable to not only medicine but also food industries, agriculture, and
Electrolyzed reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects
DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 234, 269174,
CLINICAL Impovements Obtained From The Intake Of Reduced Water
from Drinking Alkaline Water
from " Presentation At The Eight Annual International Symposium On man And
His Environment in Health And Disease" on February 24th 1990, at The Grand
Kempinski Hotel, Dalls, Texas, USA by Dr. H. Hayashi, M.D. and Dr. M
Kawamura, M.D., on : -
CONCEPT OF PREHEPATIC MEDICINES)
the introduction of alkaline ionic water in our clinic in 1985, we have
had the following interesting clinical experiences in the use of this type
of water. By the use of alkaline ionic water for drinking and the
preparation of meals for our in-patients, we have noticed :-
in blood sugar levels in diabetic patients.
Improvements in peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene.
in uric acid levels in patients with gout.
Improvements in liver function exams in hepatic disorders.
Improvements in gastroduodenal ulcer and prevention of their recurrences.
Improvements in hypertension and hypotension.
Improvements in allergic disorders such as asthma, urticaria, rhinites and
Improvements in persistent diarrhoea which occurred after gastrectomy.
improvements in post operative bower paralysis.
Improvements in serum bilirubin levels in new born babies.
confirming clinical improvements, we have always observed changes of
stools of the patients, with the colour of their feaces changing from
black-brown colour to a brigher yellow-brown one, and the odour of their
feaces becoming almost negligible.
number of patients complaining of constipation also decreased markedly.
The change of stool findings strongly suggests that alkaline ionic water
intake can decrease the production of putrefied or pathogenic metabolites.
to produce reduced water were introduced into our clinic in May 1985.
Based on the clinical experiences obtained in the past 15 years, it can be
said that introduction of electrolyzed-reduced water for drinking and
cooking purpose for in-patients should be the very prerequisite in our
daily medical practices. Any dietary recipe cannot be a scientific one if
property of water is not taken by the patients is not taken into
Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan announced in 1965 that the intake
of reduced water is effective for restoration of intestinal flora
Clinical evaluation of alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints:
Placebo controlled double blind tests
Water and Stomach Complaints
Hirokazu Tashiro, Tetsuji Hokudo, Hiromi Ono, Yoshihide Fujiyama, Tadao
Baba (National Ohkura Hospital, Dept. of Gastroenterology; Institute of
Clinical Research, Shiga University of Medical Science, Second Dept. of
of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was evaluated by placebo
controlled double blind tests. Overall scores of improvement using
alkaline ionized water marked higher than those of placebo controlled
group, and its effect proved to be significantly higher especially in
slight symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and abdominal complaints in cases of
general malaise. Alkaline ionized water group did not get interrupted in
the course of the test, nor did it show serious side effects nor abnormal
test data. It was confirmed that alkaline ionized water is safer and more
effective than placebos.
of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was clinically examined
by double blind tests using clean water as placebo. Overall improvement
rate was higher for alkaline ionized water group than placebo group and
the former proved to be significantly more effective than the other
especially in cases of slight symptoms. Examining improvement rate for
each case of chronic diarrhoea, constipation and abdominal complaints,
alkaline ionized water group turned out to be more effective than placebo
group for chronic diarrhoea, and abdominal complaints. The test was
stopped in one case of chronic diarrhoea, among placebo group due to
exacerbation, whereas alkaline ionized water group did not stop testing
without serious side effects or abnormal test data in all cases.
It was confirmed that alkaline ionized water is more effective than
clean water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and overall
improvement rate (relief of abdominal complaints) and safer than clean
the approval of alkaline ionized water electrolyzers by Pharmaceutical
Affairs Law in 1966 for its antacid effect and efficacy against
gastrointestinal disorders including hyperchylia, indigestion, abnormal
gastrointestinal fermentation and chronic diarrhoea, they have been
extensively used among patients. However, medical and scientific
evaluation of their validity is not established. In our study, we examined
clinical effect of alkaline ionized water on gastrointestinal disorders
across many symptoms in various facilities. Particularly, we studied
safety and usefulness of alkaline ionized water by doubleblind tests using
clean water as a control group.
subjects and methods
patients (34 men, 129 women, age 21 to 72, average 38.6 years old) of
indigestion, abnormal gastrointestinal fermentation (with abnormal gas
emission and rugitus) and abdominal complaints caused by irregular
dejection (chronic diarrhoea, or constipation) were tested as subjects
with good informed consent. Placebo controlled double blind tests were
conducted using alkaline ionized water and clean water at multiple
facilities. An alkaline ionized water electrolyzer sold commercially was
installed with a pump driven calcium dispenser in each of the subject
homes. Tested alkaline ionized water had pH at 9.5 and calcium
concentration at 30ppm. Each subject in placebo group used a water
purifier that has the same appearance as the electrolyzer and produces
tested equipment was randomly assigned by a controller who scaled off the
key code which was stored safely until the tests were completed and the
seal was opened again.
samples were given to each patient in the amount of 200ml in the morning
with the total of 50OmI or more per day for a month. Before and after the
tests, blood, urine and stool were tested and a log was kept on the
subjective symptoms, bowel movements and accessory symptoms. After the
tests, the results were analyzed based on the log and the test data.
163 tested subjects, alkaline ionized water group included 84 and placebo
group 79. Background factors such as gender, age and basal disorders did
not contribute to significant difference in the results.
Overall improvement rate
As to overall improvement rate of abdominal complaints, alkaline ionized
water group had 2 cases of outstanding improvement (2.5%), 26 cases of
fair improvement (32.1%), 36 cases of slight improvement (44.4%), 13 cases
of no change (16%) and 4 cases of exacerbation (4.9%), whereas placebo
group exhibited 4 (5.2%), 19 (24.7%), 27 (35.1%), 25 (32.5%) and 2 cases
(2.6%) for the same category. Comparison between alkaline ionized water
and placebo groups did not reveal any significant difference at the level
of 5% significance according to the Wilcoxon test, although alkaline
ionized water group turned out to be significantly more effective than
placebo group at the level of p value of 0.22.
Examining overall improvement rates by a 7, 2 test (with no adjustment for
continuity) between the effective and noneffective groups, alkaline
ionized water group had 64 (79%) of effective cases and 17 cases (21%) of
non effective cases, whereas placebo group had 50 (64.9%) and 27 (35.1%)
cases respectively. The result indicated that alkaline ionized water group
was significantly more effective than placebo group at the level of p
value of 0.0.48.
only at 83 slight cases of abdominal complaints, overall improvement rate
for alkaline ionized water group
cases) was composed of 11 cases (242%) of fair improvement, 22 cases
(48.9%) of slight improvement, 17 cases (44.7%) of no change and 3 cases
(6.7%) of exacerbation, whereas placebo group (38 cases) had 3 (7.8%), 17
(44.7%), 17 (44.7%) and 1 (2.6%) cases for the same category. Alkaline
ionized water group was significantly more effective than placebo group
according to the comparison between the groups (p value = 0.033).
Improvement rate by basal symptom
Basal symptoms were divided into chronic diarrhea, constipation and
abdominal complaints (dyspepsia) and overall improvement rate was
evaluated for each of them to study effect of alkaline ionized water. In
case of chronic diarrhoea, alkaline ionized water group resulted in 94.1%
of effective cases and 5.9% of non effective cases. Placebo group came up
with 64.7% effective and 35.3% non effective. These results indicate
alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantly more effective
than placebo group. In case of slighter chronic diarrhoea, comparison
between groups revealed that alkaline ionized water group is significantly
more effective than placebo group (p=0.015). In case of constipation,
alkaline ionized water group consisted of 80.5% of effective and 19.5% of
non effective cases, whereas placebo group resulted in 73.3% effective and
26.3 non effective. As to abdominal complaints (dyspepsia), alkaline
ionized water group had 85.7% of effective and 14.3% non effective cases
while placebo group showed 47.1% and 62.9% respectively.
Alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantly more effective
than placebo group (p=0.025).
Since one case of chronic diarrhoea, in placebo group saw exacerbation,
the test was stopped. There was no such cases in alkaline ionized water
group. Fourteen cases of accessory symptoms, 8 in alkaline ionized water
group and 6 in placebo group, were observed, none of which were serious.
31 out of 163 cases (16 in alkaline ionized water group, 15 in placebo
group) exhibited fluctuation in test data, although alkaline ionized water
group did not have any problematic fluctuations compared to placebo group.
Two cases in placebo group and one case in alkaline ionized water group
have seen K value of serum climb up and resume to normal value after
retesting which indicates the value changes were temporary.
result of double blind clinical tests of alkaline ionized water and clean
water, alkaline ionized water was proved to be more effective than clean
water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints (dyspepsia) and
overall improvement rate (relief from abdominal complaints). Also, the
safety of alkaline ionized water was confirmed which clinically verifies
Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water:
on metabolites produced by intestinal fermentation
Water and Intestinal Fermentation
Takashi Hayakawa, Chicko Tushiya, Hisanori Onoda, Hisayo Ohkouchi, Harul-~to
Tsuge (Gifu University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Food Science)
found that long-term ingestion of alkaline ionized water (AIW) reduces
cecal fermentation in rats that were given highly fermentable commercial
diet (MF: Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd.).
In this experiment, rats were fed MF and test water (tap water, AIW with
pH at 9 and 10) for about 3 months. Feces were collected on the 57th day,
and the rats were dissected on the 88th day. The amount of ammonium in
fresh feces and cecal contents as well as fecal free-glucose tended to
drop down for the AIW group. In most cases, the amount of free-amino acids
in cecal contents did not differ sign- icantly except for cysteine
(decreased in AIW with pH at 10) and isoleucine (increased in AIW with pH
ionized water electrolyzers were approved for manufacturing in 1965 by the
Ministry of Health and Welfare as medical equipment
to produce medical substances. Alkaline ionized water (AIW) produced by
this equipment is known to be effective against gastrointestinal
fermentation, chronic diarrhea, indigestion and hyperchylia as well as for
controlling gastric acid.
*1 This is mainly based on efficacy of the official calcium hydroxide.
*2 By giving AIW to rats for a comparatively long time under the condition
of extremely high level of intestinal fermentation, we have demonstrated
that AIW intake is effective for inhibition of intestinal fermentation
when its level is high based on some test results where AIW worked against
cecal hypertrophy and for reduction in the amount of short-chain fatty
acid that is the main product of fermentation.
*3 We have reported that this is caused by the synergy between calcium
level generally contained in AIW (about 50ppm) and the value of pH, and
that frequency of detecting some anaerobic bacteria tends to be higher in
alkaline ionized water groups than the other, although the bacteria count
in the intestine does not have significant difference. Based on these
results, we made a judgment that effect of taking AIW supports part of
inhibition mechanism against abnormal intestinal fermentation, which is
one of the claims of efficacy that have been attributed to alkaline
ionized water electrolyzers.
*4 On the other hand, under the dietary condition of low intestinal
fermentation, AIW uptake does not seem to inhibit fermentation that leads
us to believe that effect of AIW uptake is characteristic of
hyper-fermentation state. Metabolites produced by intestinal fermentation
include indole and skatole in addition to organic acids such as
short-chain fatty acid and lactic acid as well as toxic metabolites such
as ammonium, phenol and pcresol. We do not know how AIW uptake would
affect the production of these materials. In this experiment, we have
tested on ammonium production as explained in the following sections.
Four-week-old male Wistar/ST Clean rats were purchased from Japan SLC Co.,
Ltd. and were divided into 3 groups of 8 each after preliminary breeding.
AIW of pH 9 and 10 was produced by an electrolyzer Mineone ROYAL NDX3 1 OH
by Omco Co., Ltd. This model produces AIW by electrolyzing water with
calcium lactate added. On the last day of testing, the rats were dissected
under Nembutal anesthesia to take blood from the heart by a
heparin-treated syringe. As to their organs, the small intestines, cecum
and colon plus rectum were taken out from each of them. The cecurn was
weighed and cleaned with physiological saline after its contents were
removed, and the tissue weight was measured after wiping out moisture.
Part of cecal contents was measured its pH, and the rest was used to assay
ammonium concentration. The amount of ammonium contained in fresh feces
and cecal contents was measured by the Nessler method after collecting it
in the extracted samples using Conway's micro-diffusion container. Fecal
free-glucose was assayed by the oxygen method after extraction by hot
water. Analysis of free amino acids contained in cecal contents was
conducted by the Waters PicoTag amino acid analysis system.
results and analyses
difference was found in the rats' weight gain, water and feed intake and
feeding efficiency, nor was any particular distinction in appearance
identified. The length of the small intestines and colon plus rectum
tended to decline in AIW groups. PH value of cecal contents was higher and
the amount of fecal free-glucose tended to be lower in AIW groups than the
control group. Since there was no difference in fecal discharge itself,
the amount of free-glucose discharged per day was at a low level. The
amount of discharged free-glucose in feces is greater when intestinal
fermentation is more intensive, which indicates that intestinal
fermentation is more inhibited in AIW groups than the control group.
Ammonium concentration in cecal contents tends to drop down in AIW groups
(Fig. 1). This trend was most distinctive in case of fresh feces of one of
AIW groups with pH 10 (Fig.2) AIW uptake was found to be inhibitory
against ammonium production. In order to study dynamics of amino acids in
large intestines, we examined free amino acids in the cecal contents to
find out that cysteine level is low in AIW groups whereas isoleucine level
is high in one of AIW groups with pH 10, although no significant
difference was identified for other amino acids.
"Verification of Alkaline Ionized Water" by Life Water Institute, Metamor
Publishing Co., 1994, p.46
"Official Pharmaceutical Guidelines of Japan, Vol. IT' by Japan Public
Documents Association, Hirokawa PublIshin Co., 1996
"Science and Technology of Functional Water" (part) by Takashi Hayakawa,
Haruffito Tsuge, edited by Water Scienll cc Institute, 1999, pp.109-116
and Effective Use of Alkaline Ionized Water" by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruhito
Tsuge, edited by Tetsuji Hc kudou, 25th General Assembly of Japan Medical
Congress 'Tunctional Water in Medical Treatment", Administratio~ Offices,
1999, pp. 10- 11
Effects of alkaline ionized water on formation & maintenance of osseous
Water for Bone Health
Takahashi Zhenhua Zhang Yoshinori Itokawa
(Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and
Tumor Biology, Fukui Prefectural University)
of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance of osseous
tissues in rats were examined. In the absence of calcium in the diet, no
apparent calcification was observed with only osteoid formation being
prominent. Striking differences were found among groups that were given
diets with 30% and 60% calcium. Rats raised by calcium ionized water
showed the least osteogenetic disturbance. Tibiae and humeri are more
susceptible to calcium deficiency than femora. Theses results may indicate
that calcium in drinking water effectively supplements osteogenesis in
case of dietary calcium deficiency. The mechanism involved in osteoid
formation such as absorption rate of calcium from the intestine and
effects of calcium alkaline ionized drinking water on maintaining bone
structure in the process of aging or under the condition of calcium
deficiency is investigated.
Osteoporosis that has lately drawn public attention is defined as
"conditions of bone brittleness caused by reduction in the amount of bone
frames and deterioration of osseous microstructure.
" Abnormal calcium metabolism has been considered to be one of the factors
to contribute to this problem, which in turn is caused by insufficient
calcium take in, reduction in enteral absorption rate of calcium and
increase in the amount of calcium in urinal discharge. Under normal
conditions, bones absorb old bones by regular metabolism through osteoid
formation to maintain their strength and function as supporting structure.
It is getting clear that remodeling of bones at the tissue level goes
through the process of activation, resorption, reversal, matrix synthesis
Another important function of bones is storing minerals especially by
coordinating with intestines and kidneys to control calcium concentration
in the blood. When something happens to this osteo metabolism, it results
in abnormal morphological changes. Our analyses have been focusing mostly
on the changes in the amount of bones to examine effects of calcium
alkaline ionized water on the reaction system of osteo metabolism and its
efficiency. Ibis time, however, we studied it further from the standpoint
of histology. In other words, we conducted comparative studies on
morphological and kinetic changes of osteogenesis by testing alkaline
ionized water, tap water and solution of lactate on rats.
week old male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups by conditions of
feed and drinking water. Feeds were prepared with 0%, 30%, 60% and 100% of
normal amount of calcium and were given freely. Three types of drinking
water, tap water (city water, about 6ppm of Ca), calcium lactate solution
(Ca=40ppm) and alkaline ionized water (Ca =40ppm, pH=9, produced by an
electrolyzer NDX 4 LMC by Omco OMC Co., Ltd.) were also given keely. Rats'
weight, amount of drinking water and feed as well as the content of Ca in
drinking water were assayed every day. On the 19th and 25th days of
testing, tetracycline hydrochloride was added to the feed for 48 hours so
as to bring its concentration to 30mg/kg. On the 30th day, blood samples
were taken under Nembutal anesthesia, and tibiae, humeri and femora were
taken out to make non decalcified samples. Their conditions of osteoid
formation and rotation were observed using Villanueva bone stain and
Villanueva goldner stain.
groups that were given different types of drinking water and the same
amount of Ca in the feed were compared to find out no significant
difference in the rate of weight gain and intakes of feed and drinking
water. Alkaline ionized water group had significantly greater amount of
tibiae and humeri with higher concentration of calcium in the bones.
group of 0% calcium in the feed saw drastic increase in the amount of
osteoid. There was not much difference by types of drinking water. Almost
no tetracycline was taken into tibiae and humeri, although a small amount
was identified in ferora. As a result, osteogenesis went as far as osteoid
formation, but it was likely that decalcification has not happened yet, or
most of newly formed bones were absorbed.
the groups of 30% and 60% calcium in the feed, increase in the area of
tetracycline take in was more identifiable with higher clarity in
descending order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution and
tap water groups. Especially in case of tap water group, irregularity
among the areas of tetracycline take in was distinctive. The group of 100%
calcium in the feed saw some improvements in osteogenesis in descending
order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution and tap water.
In any case, bone formation seemed to be in good condition at near normal
ionized water was regarded to be effective for improvements of
osteogenesis under the conditions of insufficient calcium in the feed.
Also, the extent of dysosteogenesis differed by the region. That is,
tibiae and humeri tend to have more significant dysosteogenesis than
addition, there is a possibility that osteo metabolism varies depending on
enteral absorption rate of calcium, adjustment of discharge from kidneys
and functional adjustment of accessory thyroid in the presence of alkaline
ionized water. We are now studying its impact on calcium concentration in
the blood. We are also examining whether it is possible to deter bone
deterioration by testing on fast aging mouse models.